Maturitní otázky do angličtiny otázka 14 - 16

30. srpna 2007 v 20:34 |  Maturitní otázky - Angličtina

14. a Sightseeing Prague

Prague is said to be the city lying right in the heart of Europe. Others call it "hundred-towered Prague". Prague is the capital and the largest city in the Czech Republic. It is the seat of the president, parliament, government and other highest state and political bodies of the Czech Republic. Moreover the large quantity of social, cultural, educational and scientific institutions operate here. Prague is also an important business and financial center.
Prague has a large number of monuments. The most famous are Hradčany, with Prague Castle which was founded in the ninth century. Prague became a center of European significance during the government of the king and emperor Charles IV who established the New Town and Charles University in 1348.
Prague Castle is a part of Hradčany. In the past it was the residence of the Czech kings and since 1918 it has become the residence of our presidents. If you visit Prague Castle you will not be disappointed by the late Gothic Vladislav hall of Saint Vitus Cathedral, where the tombs of the Czech kings are located and the crown jewels are housed. Prague Castle offers a beautiful view of The Lesser Quarter, the National Theatre, the Church of Saint Nicholas and other interesting parts of Prague.
The river Vltava flows through Prague, that is why large number of bridges has been built in the past. The most famous, and also the most beautiful, is Charles Bridge, which was built in 1357. A unique set of 31 sculptures of the bridge was added from the 17th to the 20th centuries.
Among the most frequently visited places in Prague is the Old Town Square where a large number of monuments are situated. In the middle is a monument to Master Jan Hus and at the edge is Týnský Church. The Old Town Hall was built in the 14th century. In the 15th century a horological clock, much admired by tourists, was added to the City Hall's Tower, in the second half of the 19th century circular calendar plaque by Josef Mánes was added to it.
Another frequented place is Wenceslas Square, which is the longest in the country (750 m). In its upper part is the statue of the Czech prince Saint Weceslas. Nearby is the National Museum. On Wenceslas Square we can find a large quantity of shops, restaurants, banks and exchange offices.
Old Prague is very beautiful and we can certainly say that it is really the most interesting part of our beautiful city. Unfortunately in other parts a lot of housing blocks and concrete-panel houses were built, which to some extent damage the whole city's reputation.
There is now a modern underground, but traffic is still a problem.

14. b William Shakespeare

William was born at Strattford upon Avon in April 1564. He was the third child of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden. His father was one of the most prosperous men of Strattford and William attended the local grammar school. In December 1583, Shakespeare married Ann Hathaway, daughter of a farmer. Their first child Susanna was baptized in 1583 and twins Hamnet and Judith in 1585. Hamnet died at the age of 11.
Little of Shakespeare's life is known until 1592 when he came to London and joined a group of actors known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men, which became the King's Men under the patronage of James I. In 1599 he bought the Globe Theatre. First he helped adapt of rewrite older plays but later he started to write his own plays and he was very successful. Both the Queen Elizabeth I and James I liked him very much. His plays were first published in 1623. After acting and writing he went back to Strattford and lived a quiet life with his family. He made fortune so he could buy a new fine house in Strattford. He died on the same day as he was born (23rd April). The legend says that he died after a louder and noisier birthday celebration with his friends. He is buried at local Trinity Church. There are only two portraits of Shakespeare, which are authentic, and one of them is the bust in Strattford at Trinity Church.
Shakespeare wrote 37 plays and beautiful sonnets. His mastery lies in his human vision which recognize the complexity of moral questions and in the richness of his language. He wrote comedies, history plays and tragedies.
Comedies: The Merchant of Venice, A Midsummer-Night's Dream, As You Like It, The Taming of the Shrew, The Comedy of Errors.
History plays: Henry IV, Henry V, Richard III
Tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet, King Lear, Othello

Romeo and Juliet

is about unhappy love and death of Romeo and Juliet, the only children of two powerful houses of Verona - the House of Montague and the House of Capulet. These two houses hate each other and Romeo Montague meets Juliet at the ball. He fells in love with her although he knows she is Capulet. They love each other very much and ask Friar Laurence to marry them. Their love and marriage are secret and by an unfortunate coincidence Romeo kills Tybalt who is Juliet's cousin. Prince of Verona sends Romeo to the exile outside Verona and young Juliet is forced to get married to a young nobleman called Paris. She asks Friar Laurence for help again and he gives her magic drops after which she fells asleep for several hours and looks as if she was dead. Romeo learns about Juliet's death but he doesn't know about the trick and kills himself. Soon after that Juliet wakes up and when she sees Romeo dead, she kills herself too. Both Montague and Capulet Houses reconcile only after the death of their beloved children.

15. a The Czech Republic

The Czech Republic is a small landlocked country in Central Europe. Its area is nearly
79 000 square kilometers. Its capital is Prague.
The country borders Poland, Austria, Germany and Slovakia, with which it was united in the state of Czechoslovakia until 31 December 1992. The country consists of two main regions: Bohemia - the western half and Moravia - with part of Silesia in the east. Bohemia is more densely populated and industrialized than the eastern part.
The borders are mostly defined by mountains and rivers. The best known mountain ranges are the Šumava, the Krušné Mountains, the Jizerské Mountains, the Krkonoše, the Orlické Mountains, the Jeseníky and the Beskydy. Bohemia is separated from Moravia by the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands. The largest rivers are the Elbe, the Vltava and the Morava. Although there are only a few natural lakes in the country, Southern Bohemia has many artificial lakes, which date from the 16th century. There are many mineral springs throughout the country, around many o which saps have developed (Karlovy Vary, Třeboň, Luhačovice, ...).
The country is heavy forested. Around one-third of the total area of the country is forested. The forests provide a habitat for a wide variety of wildlife. Nature reserves and national parks can be found throughout the country. The largest are in the Krkonoše and the Šumava. There are several karst regions in the country with remarkable caves. In the Moravian Karst there is an abyss and an underground river.
Czech weather is moderate but unpredictable.
Although the country is not very rich in natural resources with the exception of coal, it is highly industrialized. Its most important industries are steel, machinery, textiles, and food processing.... The agriculture is developed and so the country is almost self-sufficient in agricultural production. The economy of the country depends on foreign trade. The main partners are Germany, Austria and Slovakia.
The population of the country is slightly higher than 10 million people, mostly Czechs.
The Czech Republic is a democratic country. Head of the state is President, elected for a five-year period by the Parliament. The Parliament comprises two Houses - the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The executive power is in the hands of the Government headed by the Prime Minister.

15. b American traditions

In every country there are a lot of holidays and festivals. In the USA the most important of them are Christmas Day and New Year's Day, Halloween and St. Valentines Day.
Halloween - people make pumpkins with candles. Children go from house to house and want some candies. Halloween is celebrated in October.
X-mas - in the USA is similar to czech Christmas. The Americans have Santa Claus, who brings gifts. On the 25th December the Americans get up and go to the X-mas tree. There are gifts and they unpack them. Little gifts (candies,...) are in the X-mas socks.
Independence Day - is on the 4th July. The Americans remember foundation of US.
St. Valentines Day - is on the 14th of January. It is the holiday of lovers. They give small gifts to each other. They post Valentine's cards to each other.
Memorial Day - to honoree the dead of all wars
Veteran's Day - in honor of those Americans who served in wars
Thanksgiving Day - was first celebrated by Pilgrims. They came to America in 1620. The whole family gathers and enjoys a traditional dinner - a roast turkey, apple or pumpkin pie
President's Day - formerly the birthday of the first US President, now to honors all the past US presidents

16. a The human body, health and diseases

Health is one of the most important things in man's life. Everyone knows it but if you are healthy, you usually don't appreciate it. You often realize it when your parents or one of your relative is seriously ill. At present there are more and more illnesses that we haven't known before, but they are very dangerous and can kill. Scientists still can't find medicines to cure some of them so we can only hope not to get them. I think that the prevention is very important and plays a big role too.
Everybody should undergo a regular check-up at least once a year. However we usually go to the doctor's when we don't feel well or have a temperature.
We can suffer from various illnesses beginning with common children diseases such as: measles (spalničky), chicken-pox (plané neštovice), mumps (příušnice) or scarlet-fever (spála). We usually suffer from common infections such as cold, flu, tonsillitis (angína) and so on. When we are ill we usually stay in bed, drink herbal teas, take pills, drops or vitamins and after a week or two we feel well again.
However (nicméně), the situation may sometimes be more serious and needs special treatment (léčba) in hospital, for example in case of a heart attack, appendicitis, breaking an arm or leg, an animal or snake bite, big bleeding, poisoning or in case of some really dangerous disease such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, leukemia, diabetes and so on.
Medical care of any type in our country is almost free of charge, although there are many private doctors now whom we must pay for checking-up. We pay for the most medicines but not all.
The Health insurance system is undergoing some changes at present. Employers pay health insurance for their employees but everybody must pay extra money for their health insurance. I think our National Health Service is now in crisis.
It's true that the prevention is better than a cure. The best way to cure yourself is not to catch it. We should try to live a healthy way of life, which means we should have a good proportion of work to leisure time, between our sleep and up time. We should practise sports, we should eat healthy food with lots of vitamins, we shouldn't smoke or drink too much alcohol.

Buď první, kdo ohodnotí tento článek.


1 Cufi Cufi | 2. ledna 2008 v 12:39 | Reagovat

dobře udělané.....možná i odmaturuju :)

2 Lusssi Lusssi | 20. ledna 2008 v 16:39 | Reagovat

Pěkný, ale mně už asi nepomůže vůbec nic...:-(

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