Maturitní otázky do angličtiny otázka 10 - 13

30. srpna 2007 v 20:34 |  Maturitní otázky - Angličtina

10. a My home, housing, especially in the Czech republic and the USA

People living in the Czech republic usually live either in flats in housing estates or in family houses with gardens. I live with my parents and sister in a flat in one of many Prague housing estates. Our flat is large and not silent and comfortable.
Out flat consist of an ante-room, a bathroom, a toilet, a kitchen, which is also used as a dining-room, a balcony and three rooms (bedroom, living room, children room).
The ante-room is quite large. You can find there three wardrobes with our clothes and boots, a red carpet which is very old (and dirty because I am lazy to clean it up) and a picture on the wall.
The kitchen is also used as a dining-room because of lack space. You will find there a table with four creaky chairs and then a sink, microwave oven and a cooker.
The bathroom and a toilet are tiled. A wash machine is situated in the bathroom.
In the bedroom there are a large bed for my mother and father. Next to the bed you can see two bedside tables with night lamps. There is a blue carpet and two wardrobes.
The living-room is the most used room in the flat. In this room we watch TV, read books, have a rest or just idle about. In the living-room you can find a TV set, a video and a stereo. There are also two armchairs, a sofa, flowers, a lamp, a picture and many other things.
The children room is shared by me and my sister. There are two wardrobes (one for me and one for my sister) a TV, my tape-deck, a receiver and a computer. We have also a table and a chair there.
In the USA, people in cities live in rental apartments or in single-family houses. Six out of every seven homes have at least one room for each family member. although most Americans shop and cook for themselves, life is made easier by many domestic time-saving devices. About 85 per cent of homes have a TV set and a car, while 50 per cent have two or more TV sets and cars. Americans usually live with their relatives or their households contain only parents and children.

10. b London and other British cities

London is the capital city of the UK. It is situated on the river Thames in southeast England.
London is a huge metropolis; its population is 10 million (with suburbs). It has many attractions. We can see them by walk or by various ways of transport. We can either go by bus, especially by one of the famous - red double Decker, or by underground. It is the oldest underground in the world.
Buckingham Palace has been the Queen's or King's residence in London since the Queen Victoria's reign. Some of its rooms are open to the public during August and September. Outside the place the Changing of the Guard ceremony takes place. It is one of the biggest London's parades.
The Houses of Parliament are in gothic style but they were rebuilt in 1840 on the side of the old Palace of Westminster, which was destroyed by fire. There is also the famous clock tower with Big Ben.
Whitehall is the street where the government offices are. Horse Guards parade takes place here.
Downing Street 10 has been the official home of British Prime Minister since the 18th century. No. 11 is the home of the Chancellor of Exchequer.
Westminster Abbey is in Parliament Square. A church is very old. It is the crowning place of English monarchs and several generations of English Sovereigns are buried here. There are also many memorials to great statesmen, politicians, scientists, and poets.
St. Paul's Cathedral is one of the largest cathedrals in the world. It is a masterpiece of the architect Sir Christopher Wren and was built after the Great Fire in 1666. It took 42 years for the completion. Wren is buried here. In 1981 Charles and Diana were married here.
The City is the oldest part of London. It was founded by the Romans. At present it is the financial center of the country, the seat of the Bank of England.
Tower of London was built by William Conqueror. It is the seat of the Royal Mint and the Royal Observatory. Not far away is the Tower Bridge. It can open in the middle and let large ships go through.
Trafalgar Square was named after Admiral Nelson's victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar. Nelson's statue is situated here.
The National Gallery also lies here.
There are many parks in London, for example Regent's Park and Hyde Park with its Speaker's Corner where anyone can make a speech.
Greenwich is the place where the prime meridian is.

11. a Living in town and in the country

Many people like living in town and spending their weekends in the country. My family and I prefer life in town. I was born in Prague, and so I am accustomed to living here. But we also like to go to my parent's birthplace in the South Bohemia. I always look forward to staying there, where it is possible to spend all day in the open air.
I like going for walks there. Sometimes we take a trip with my friends. The countryside looks different in each season of the year. I am always eager to see large fields, woods and hills. I towns we are constantly assailed by the noise of the traffic but in the country you can hear at most he bird's singing.
The air in the country is different from the town's air. In the country there are fewer exhaust fumes and gases like carbon dioxide because of fewer number of cars.
But I must say that the country has also many disadvantages. The biggest problem is to get a job. Many people are forced to travel many kilometers to town, as the matter of course if they gained it. In town you have much higher chance to get a good job. Another unpleasant problem is that everyone knows you and knows what you do, because you live in a small place together with a lot of people. It is a great advantage of living in town, because you are hardly unknown there.
I like both the exciting life in town and relaxation in the country. So, I think, the best thing is to live in town and to stay in the country at weekends and during holidays.

11. b British traditions

In every country there are a lot of holidays and festivals. In GB they are called bank holidays because the banks are closed. The most important of them are Christmas Day and New Year's Day, Good Friday and Easter Monday.
Christmas in GB is marked by fairy lights and illuminated streets, carols and children awaiting the arrival of Father Christmas and his reindeer stopping outside their chimney. They hang up their stockings at the foot of beds and wait for the presents. They open them only on the 25th December at breakfast time. At noon they have their traditional Christmas dinner - roast turkey and Christmas pudding. December 26 is called Boxing Day. That day parents go with their children to watch pantomimes.
New Year's Eve is the night of merry-making all over the land, especially in Scotland. They have family parties and before midnight people gather in squares, link arms and at twelve o'clock they sing "Auld land syne". In Scotland they call the last day of the year Hogmanay and believe that the first visitor on New Year's Day brings good luck. They give each other a piece of coal and wish their chimney to smoke for a long time.
Easter is celebrated as in the rest of Europe. It is an ancient symbol of spring and new life, when Christians remember Christ's death and his return to life.
There are other bank holidays in GB as well: the first and last Monday in May and the last Monday in August. In Northern Ireland there are two special days - St. Patrick's Day and Orengeman´s Day.
St. Valentines Day - a lovers´ feast
May Day - celebrating fertility with dancing around Maypoles
Midsummer's Day - various celebrations, esp. a sunrise ceremony at Stonehenge
Queen's official birthday - in June
Guy Fawkes Night - to remember the unsuccessful plot to blow up the Houses of Parliament with bonfires, fireworks and burning of "guys"
Halloween - the Eve of All Saint's Day - a night of traditional fun and games
Remembrance Day - to remember those who were killed in the two world wars

12. Weather, seasons of the year

Our country lies in the center of Europe and its climate is moderate. We have four different seasons - spring, summer, autumn and winter. Each of them has its special magic.
In spring flowers start growing up and everything seems to be clear. There is a lot of showers and rains and a temperature is bellow twenty degrees. Birds come back from south. It seems that begins a new life. And that is why people usually fall in love in spring.
Summers in our country are quite warm and usually rather dry almost without rains. Sometimes comes a storm. The sun shines most of time. Summer is for most people very agreeable and pleasant - mainly for children and students because summer is time for holidays.
Autumn starts on 21st of September, but the weather is usually still warm. The end of October brings a lot of rains and weather is windy. The colors of tree leaves are fantastic. But this colors does not last long - the leaves of trees fall down.
Then the weather is getting slowly colder and the winter comes. the winter's landscape is lovely, everything is covered in snow. Many people go to the mountains for skiing and snowboarding. The most favorite entertainment for children in winter is making snowmen, skiing and skating. But the most important thing is Christmas. Temperature is usually bellow zero and snowing is very frequent.
What the weather will be in the following days we can find out by weather forecast. The information about the weather are in every medias.
I like every season of the year, but my the most favorite seasons are summer and spring. Spring because of its magic when everything wake up. And summer because we have holidays and you can enjoy life without school.

13. a Man and the environment

Civilization has brought people many advantages but they product also pollute and damage the environment in which we live. Pollution affects air, water, land, forests, people, animals and plants.
Air pollution is the biggest problem in large cities and in areas with concentrated industrial production. Emissions range (rozsah) from smoke, dust, and smells to car and lorry exhausts. Smoke contains sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide which are produced by coal-fired power stations and industrial plants (závody) burning fossil fuels.
Trees are vitally important for our life because they are the lungs of our planet. They absorb carbon dioxide from the air and give out oxygen in return. In some parts of the world, such as Asia and the South America, trees are not threatened (ohrožovány) by pollution, but by people. The great rain forests are being destroyed for firewood and building materials. Since the Amazon rain forest covers an area as large as the whole of Europe and contains one third of the world's trees, scientists believe that it provides 50 per cent of the world's annual production of oxygen. If we lose tropical forests, it will become more difficult, perhaps even impossible, to breathe. with more carbon dioxide in the air, the temperature will rise, the icecaps at the North and South Poles will melt, and the sea level will rise which will result in the flooding of many coastal cities.
Several gases have been identified as contributing (přispívající) to greenhouse effect, which can also cause climate change. Without this "greenhouse effect" there could be no life on earth because the earth is warmed up naturally by the atmosphere which traps (pohlcuje) solar radiation.
How can the problems of air pollution be solved? First of all, people should try to use alternative sources of energy, such as solar, water, wind, geothermal and perhaps tidal (přílivová) energies, or at least to burn smokeless fuels.
Water pollution results from harmful industrial processed and households, from pesticides and other chemicals used in agriculture, from waste disposal sites (skládka) and from ships. Concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, lead or copper are increasing. Nitrate can pollute inland waters by leaching (pronikání) from farmland. Much of this comes from organic nitrogen in the soil but some also from organic and inorganic fertilizer use.
If we want to have cleaner waterways, some measures must be taken. First, discharges to water from industrial processes should be controlled and the number of sewage treatment plants should be increased. We should also find technologies for saving water and reduce the amount of chemicals. New technologies should develop environmentally friendly pesticides.
Noise poses is a considerable problem for many people. I results in stress, lack of concentration, defective hearing or insomnia.

13. b My favorite English-writing author

Charles Dickens (1812 - 1870) was born in 1812 in Portsmouth. He was the second child of a clerk in the Navy Pay Office. His childhood wasn't happy because of his father's inability to sty out of debt. This led to his father's imprisonment and Charles was sent to work in a warehouse. Memories of this time haunted him for the rest of his life. In spite of parents´ failure to educate him, Dickens worked hard and became a clerk in a solicitor's office, then a reporter of Parliamentary debates for the Morning Chronicle.
With Oliver Twist Dickens began his indictment of the cruelty that children suffer in the hands of society. While he was working on Oliver Twist, Dickens learned of the death of his beloved sister-in-law, Mary. The grief he displayed in his work.
Dickens followed the success of Oliver Twist with Nicolas Nickleby, The Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge.
He travelled to America. He supported the abolition of slavery there. On his return to England he wrote Christmas Books.
After the publication of Dombey and Son Dickens's novels became increasingly sombre. Between 1850 and his death in 1870 Dickens published Little Dorrit, David Copperfield, Hard Times, A Tale of Two Cities. His last novel, The Mystery of Edwin Drood, was never completed and was later published posthumously.
Dickens was buried in Poets´ Corner at Westminster Abbey.
Dickens is well known for his cruel, comic and repugnant characters. He is one of the most popular writers in the world.
 

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1 guma guma | E-mail | 4. května 2009 v 18:58 | Reagovat

nevim nevim, ale napiš mi na mejl něco ti pošlu to budeš koukat....

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