Maturitní otázky do angličtiny otázka 17 - konec

30. srpna 2007 v 20:37 |  Maturitní otázky - Angličtina

17. a Food and drinks

Food is one of the chief joys of life. Eating - and for many, cooking too - is a pleasure. There are some people who eat just once a day - they have one continuous meal. Others, however, are figure-conscious and try to fast or at least cut down on sugar and fat intake. Some young ladies like to go on a slimming diet.
The Czechs love food. The day begins with breakfast. During the morning they have a snack. Then comes lunch, which is usually a three-course meal - soup, the main dish of meat and vegetables, and a sweet. An afternoon snack is not uncommon and in the evening there is supper, which again is a more substantial meal.
The English don't seem to care much about food. In GB the day begins with a nice cup of tea in bed early in the morning. Then they have a leisurely breakfast. It usually starts with a cereal to which you just add milk or cream and sugar. This is followed by fried bacon and eggs, or sausages and fried tomatoes, or kippers. Then round off with many cups of tea or coffee and toast and marmalade.
In the middle of morning they have what is known as elevenses, usually not more than a cup of coffee and biscuits. At midday it is time for lunch. It is a light meal consisting of a warm dish and a dessert, or just ham and cheese sandwiches. At about four o'clock it is teatime. It is an institution, a social occasion. The meal consists of thin slices of white or brown bread with cheese, or some fish or meat paste, lettuce or cucumber, tomatoes, and this is followed by jam tarts of cakes. And of course there are several cups of strong tea with milk.
In the evening some families have dinner - a hot three-course meal. However, by Czech standard it is a meager meal of meat and boiled vegetables and only a few tiny potatoes of chips. Where it is customary to have high tea at five or six, then the only thing you can expect is bread and butter or cheese and biscuits and a coffee or some milk as a nightcap.
In the last two generations, however, the British have become far less conservative and now they often eat foreign food. Chinese, Indian, Greek, and Italian restaurants are popular in all big cities.
The American's favorite meat is beef. But they eat 40 per cent of all the beef in the form of hamburgers, usually served with pommes frites. Many people refuse to eat seafood or liver. Ethnic minorities in the USA often keep the eating habits of their native countries and some of their foods have become popular even outside their ethnic areas, for example Italian pizzas and spaghetti and various Mexican foods.

17. b Geography of the U. S. A.

The USA is situated in the southern part of North America. Its neighbours are Canada in the north, Mexico in the south and Russia in Alaska. It covers the area of nearly 10 million square kilometers.
Central plains are bounded by the Rocky Mountains and the Coastal Mountains in the west, the Appalachian Mountains in the east and alluvial plains around the Gulf of Mexico. The highest mountain in the USA is Mt. McKinley in the Alaska Range (6 194 m).
The largest rivers are the Mississippi and the Missouri (together more than 6 000 km). It is the third longest river system in the world. Niagara Falls and the five Great Lakes - Lake Ontario, Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior are situated on the southeastern Canadian border. Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world.
The USA has many different kinds of landscape and climate. The differences across continental US are extreme. Enormous parks and forests, lakes and seashores, mountains and valleys, deserts and wilderness areas surprise visitors in the same way as the climate does. The Pacific Coast has pleasantly warm summers and mild winters, except in the south, where summers are hot and dry. The Atlantic Coast is relatively cold, occasionally with heavy snowfalls in winter, but summers may be hot and very humid. The Middle West winters are cold and long. Death Valley in California is about the hottest place on earth in summer. California, Arizona, New Mexico and Florida belong among the so-called Sun Belt States.
There are many national parks in the USA, visited by millions of people. The first National Park was Yellowstone, founded in 1872, in the state of Wyoming. Another famous park is the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in the state of Arizona. The parks represent one of the finest examples of nature conservation in the world.

19. a Clothing and fashion

Through the ages geography and climate, poverty and wealth have played their role in fashioning styles of clothing. Later the cheap manufacture of clothes and the sewing machine brought about a revolution. Ready-made clothes have become relatively cheap. Fashion designers, however, do their best to be original and dressmaking has become a big business now.
There are boundless possibilities for original creativity, and yet every ten years of so fashion repeats itself.
Lady's average wardrobe consists of: nylon underwear and stockings, several nightdresses and dressing gowns that can be washed easily; a couple of skirts, a suit, jumpers, blouses and cardigans for everyday wear; a plain woolen dress and a leather jacket, a coat for winter; some brightsummer dresses, a smart dress of two for special occasions and an evening dress. Of course, there are also the accessories: shoes, gloves, hats, scarves and handbags in matching colors.
Fashions in men's clothes change less frequently. A small stock of vests and pants, socks and several pairs of trousers, some suits and a pile of shirts is all we need; pyjamas, slippers, shoes, a pullover, a raincoat and a winter coat and an anorak. The only decorative item is the tie. Young people now are most comfortable in jeans and loose jackets.

19. b The political system of the USA

The United States of America is a federal republic, which consists of fifty states and the District of Columbia. Each state has its own government, laws, customs, education, taxes, traffic regulations, etc. The federal government is responsible only for matters concerning the country as a whole: foreign affairs, defense and finance.
Each state government has to keep to the Constitution, which was officially adopted in 1790 by the original 13 states. The Bill of Rights was added in 1791 and other 26 amendments have been added over the years, but the political system created by the Constitution is basically the same today as it was in 1790. The document guarantees freedom of religion, free speech, free press, the right of citizens to bear arms and so on. It gave the USA the principle of a balanced power divided into three branches - legislative, executive and judicial.
The supreme law-making body in the country is the Congress. Its seat is in the Capitol in Washington, D. C. It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon its population. A Senator is elected for six years, a Representative for two years. The main task of the Congress is to make federal laws, declare war and deal with foreign treaties.
At the head of the executive power is the President. He is chosen, together with his Vice-President, in nationwide elections every four years. His powers are even wider than those of the British Prime Minister. He proposes bills, can veto or refuse a law, appoints federal judges, ministers, who are called Secretaries, and ambassadors. His Cabinet consists of 13 Secretaries who are in charge of 13 departments. The most important among them are Departments of State, Treasury, Defense, Justice and Interior. The Vice-president is the chairman of the Senate. The two leading parties are the Democrats and the Republicans.
The Supreme Court is the main instrument of the federal judiciary. It watches the President and congress and determines whether their acts and laws are in accordance with the Constitution.
The American flag was first adopted in 1777. It is sometimes called "Stars and Stripes".

23.a At the restaurant and hotel

Sometimes when we celebrate a special occasion of if we want to have dinner with our friends of family but don't want to make it ourselves, we go to a restaurant.
When we come in, the waiter (-ess) greets us very politely: "Good evening, madam, good evening, sir" and bring us the menu. There we can choose either from the set menu or á la carte. The set menu comprises a number of dishes at a fixed price, while if we eat á la carte, we choose a dish and pay its particular price.
We usually begin with a starter: a fruit salad, a soup. Then we choose the main dish. We can either have chicken and rice, toast and potatoes (boiled, roast or mashed), lamb or pork chops and potatoes of fish and chops. In the Czech republic we also eat roast sirloin and dumpling or Vienna schnitzel and potato salad. Our national meal is pork, dumplings and sauerkraut. After the main dish we choose some dessert: a trifle or an ice cream, a cake or a pancake. We drink tea of coffee with it.
When we have finished the meal, we ask the waiter for the bill and pay for it. We mainly leave a tip for him and go away.
When you arrived at a hotel, you go first to the reception desk. It is advisable to make a reservation in advance. If the reservation has not been done, there are two possibilities: either the hotel has no vacancy and you must try your luck at another one, or you can get a room without a reservation.
If you can stay, the receptionist writes your name down in his register, you give the length of your stay and sign the guest book, get your key and go up to your room. It's usually a single or a double room, with a bath or with a shower. In a very good hotels you can find a color TV in every room, a private car-park, 24-hour room service, a night club.
When you go out, you'll leave your key with the reception clerk. On moving out of the hotel you ask for the bill, pay and check out. If the service was good and efficient, you'll give the reception clerk a tip.

24. a At the post office

When you enter a post office you can see several counters: for sending money, for sending registered letters and buying stamps, for ordering telephone calls and sending telegrams, for sending parcels.
It is a long way from the sender to the addressee. When the letter has been written and put into the envelope, the envelope is sealed, stamped, and addressed. Then it is ready to be dropped into a letterbox. The box is cleared once or several times a day and the mail is taken to the main post office. There it is postmarked and sorted according to its destination, put in mail bags and loaded on trains or cars. When the mail reaches the place it is going to, the postmen sort it again. Later in the morning a postman delivers the letters.
Before a parcel is sent off it is weighed. A label may be put on it, such as "fragile" or "urgent". Parcels should be tied up with care. When a parcel cannot be delivered because the addressee is not at home, a note is dropped into his letterbox asking him to collect the parcel at the post office.
Postal clerks must know all the postal regulations so as to be able to answer all sorts of questions: "How much is this postcard to France, please?" or "Have I got the right stamps?" The clerks must be very patient. On the other hand, at the telephone counter it is people who must be patient. I often takes some time to put through long-distance calls. Before each call a person should think about what he wants to say, to make the call clear and brief. Women seem to have more to say to their friends than men.

25. a At the railway station

A the railway station in a large town the first thing you will notice in the main hall is several ticket offices. There people buy one-way tickets or return rickets, and those who go regularly to work by train can get season tickets. The station clock above the entrance to the platforms is watched by passengers in the queues outside the ticket offices. To miss a train can be rather unpleasant. Besides the ticket offices, the main hall has an arrivals and departures board. Nearby is the inquiry office and the booking office, where seats can be booked in advance. The waiting room is full of people waiting for their connection. Hungry and thirsty passengers can get a snack or a meal in the refreshment room or at the restaurant.
Passengers, who have got their tickets, go to the platform. There they can say good bye to their friends and get on the train. They go through the compartments and try to find a free seat. Having found one, they put heir luggage on the rack and sit down. Some passengers start to read, others watch the landscape till they fall asleep.
If you travel over night, you can go in a sleeping-car or a couchette carriage. Travelling to a distant place you can go by a fast train or an express. There you can also have your meals because there is usually a dining coach or a buffet coach on the train. The guards go on a train and check the passengers´ tickets and they can advise them where to change trains, if necessary.
 

Buď první, kdo ohodnotí tento článek.

Komentáře

1 karol karol | 14. prosince 2007 v 19:10 | Reagovat

dík mockrát dost mi to pomohlo.

2 PalomaSuarez PalomaSuarez | E-mail | 18. prosince 2007 v 11:50 | Reagovat

potřebné k maturitě

3 Pavlusa Pavlusa | 13. ledna 2008 v 12:50 | Reagovat

taky mockrát děkuju, moc se to hodi...

4 Ajulka :o) Ajulka :o) | 2. února 2008 v 17:19 | Reagovat

jj, přidám se k ostatním - hodí se mi to a taky děkuji...:o))

5 leninkaaaa leninkaaaa | 20. února 2008 v 19:00 | Reagovat

ahojky, v červnu maturuji a volitelný předmět jsem si vybrala angličtinu... Vše co potřebuji k otázce najdu pouze tady... A chtěla jsem poděkovat za výborně vypracovaný otázky, myslím, že by i náš učitel je takhle nevypracoval... Fakt díky...

6 monča monča | 3. října 2009 v 5:35 | Reagovat

opravdu úžasné stránky, lepší jsem ještě neviděla!!Děkuji

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